Web has had enormous effects
A portion of the public sphere comes into being in every conversation in which private individuals assemble to form a public body.
– J. Habermas
By “the public sphere” we mean… a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed… Citizens behave as a public body when they confer in an unrestricted fashion – that is, with the guarantee of freedom of assembly and association and the freedom to express and publish their opinions – about matters of general interest. (Habermas 1964, p.49[p.2])
|open to all||restricted|
|accessible for money||closed even if you can pay|
|state-related||non-state, civil society|
|national or popular||group, class, or locale|
|in view of others||concealed|
|outside the home||domestic|
|circulated in print/electronic media||circulated orally/in manuscript|
|known widely||known only to a few|
Strukturwandlung der Öffentlichkeit (1962)
A private person has no right to pass public and perhaps even disapproving judgement on the actions, procedures, laws, regulations, and ordinances of sovereigns and courts…. or to publish in print pertinent reports that he manages to obtain. For a private person is not at all capable of making such judgment, because he lacks complete knowledge of circumstances and motives.
– Frederick ’the Great’ of Prussia, 1784
|Private Realm||Public Sphere||Sphere of Public Authority|
|Civil Society (Commodity Exchange, social labour)||Political Public Sphere||State|
|Conjugal Family||Literary/Philosophical Public Sphere||Court|
…some publics are defined by their tension with a larger public… Discussion with such a public is understood to contravene the rules obtaining in the world at large… This kind of public is, in effect, a counterpublic: it maintains at some level… an awareness of its subordinate status. – M. Warner (2002)
On the web, text is “Marked up”
This is a paragraph. It can contain further markup and also more complex content.
Let’s continue our introduction to HTML via JSBin:
Writing in HTML is distracting and time-consuming!
Practice Markdown on this similar but subtly different page, or edit `index.md` in atom.